Updating the who guidelines on community noise
Average sound levels always exceeded 45 d BA and for 50% of the time exceeded between 52 and 59 d BA in individual ICUs.
There was diurnal variation with values decreasing after evening handovers to an overnight average minimum of 51 d BA at 4 AM.
This extensive scientific assessment identifies which energy systems can be considered clean for health in the home, and specifies the levels of emissions that pose health risks.
The guidelines also include recommendations against the use of unprocessed coal as a household fuel, and against the use of kerosene as a household fuel, in the light of health and safety risks.
Peaks above 85 d BA occurred at all sites, up to 16 times per hour overnight and more frequently during the day.
WHO guidelines on sound levels could be only achieved in a side room by switching all equipment off.
They can be read in conjunction with Air quality guidelines for Europe, 2nd edition, which is still the authority on guideline values for all other air pollutants As well as revised guideline values, this book makes a brief yet comprehensive review of the issues affecting the application of the guidelines in risk assessment and policy development.
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They provide a scientific basis for legally enforceable standards.
The guidelines also explain how well-designed, well-constructed, well-maintained building envelopes are critical to the prevention of microbial growth and moisture.
The most important means for avoiding adverse health effects is the prevention (or minimization) of persistent dampness and microbial growth on interior surfaces and in building structures.
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Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) suffer from sleep deprivation arising from nursing interventions and ambient noise.